Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

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Hernani Pinto Lemos Jr.
Álvaro Nagib Atallah
André Luis Alves Lemos


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the most prevalent pulmonary diseases. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of anticholinergic tiotropium bromide (TB) in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. This is a systematic review of randomized clinical trials performed in the Brazilian Cochrane Center. Electronic database searched: Cochrane library, Medline, LILACS, Pubmed. There were no language, date or other restrictions. Participants: Patients with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intervention: tiotropium bromide. Comparison: Other bronchodilators or placebo. Outcomes: Mortality, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, hospitalizations, adverse effects. Results: 14 studies were included in this systematic review. Mortality was lower in the tiotropium bromide group when compared with the salmeterol group [statistical significance: relative risk (RR) 0.16, confidence interval 95% (CI) 0.03 to 0.89, number needed to treat (NNT) of 100]. There was not a statistical difference in the mortality outcome in the comparison between tiotropium bromide and placebo groups (RR 0.88, CI 0.74 to 1.06). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation decreases significantly in the tiotropium bromide group when compared to placebo (statistical significance: RR 0.85, CI 0.77 to 0.93, NNT 25), but in comparison to the salmeterol group there was no statistical difference (RR 0.93, CI 0.80 to 1.08). The number of hospitalizations was lower in the tiotropium bromide group than in the placebo group (statistical significance: RR 0.77, CI 0.59 to 0.99, NNT 50). The results indicate that tiotropium bromide is an effective once-daily bronchodilator. Tiotropium bromide was associated with consistent health benefits, including reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, hospitalizations and even mortality when compared with salmeterol.

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